Ask a Question
GoPro Support Hub Find a solution. Share a solution. Ask a question. Stay stoked.
Announcements
Is your GoPro gear up to date? Check to see If it is on our Update page.
Cameras
%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-279774%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3EHero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-279774%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EI've%20been%20trying%20to%20get%20my%20Hero%207%20black%20to%20record%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThe%20result%20is%20always%20an%20upside%20down%20video.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI've%20tried%20turning%20'auto%20lock'%20on.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI've%20set%20'landscape%20lock'%20to%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EBut%20I%20still%20get%20an%20upside%20down%20video.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20had%20an%20older%20gopro%20model%20and%20I%20could%20swear%20it%20had%20a%20mode%20for%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EAnd%20the%20result%20was%20a%20video%20that%20was%20right%20side%20up%20when%20viewed.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EAny%20ideas%20if%20the%20Hero%207%20black%20can%20do%20this%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-LABS%20id%3D%22lingo-labs-279774%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CLINGO-LABEL%3EHERO7%20Black%3C%2FLINGO-LABEL%3E%3C%2FLINGO-LABS%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-279894%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-279894%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3Ehi%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Emine%20is%20working%20as%20it%20should.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eand%20where%20do%20you%20get%20the%20upside%20down%3F%20in%20camera%20play%3F%20when%20play%20it%20on%20PC%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FNN-TFJP9Jpo%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%20rel%3D%22nofollow%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%20noopener%20noreferrer%22%3Ehttps%3A%2F%2Fyoutu.be%2FNN-TFJP9Jpo%3C%2FA%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ekeep%20in%20mind%2C%20when%20you%20start%20recording%2C%20the%20orientation%20camera%20set%2C%20feel%2C%20at%20that%20moment%20is%20kept%20during%20recording.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20use%20this%20upside%20down%20when%20dashboard%20in%20my%20car.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20let%20the%20l%3CSTRONG%3Eandscape%20lock%20off%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%2C%20and%20screen%26nbsp%3Borientation%26nbsp%3Bgoes%20after%20the%20camera%20position.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ewhen%20I%20mtb%20bike%20with%20my%20CamelbaK%26nbsp%3Bbackpack%2C%20is%20mounted%20upside%20down%2C%20I%20always%20lock%20%3CSTRONG%3Elandscape%20lock%26nbsp%3Bdown%2C%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%26nbsp%3Bjust%20to%20be%20sure%20I%20have%20this%20orientation%20when%20the%20record%20starts.%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ewhen%20I%20use%20the%20GoPro%20backpack%2C%20I%20use%20%3CSTRONG%3Elandscape%20lock%20up%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%2C%20for%20the%20same%20reason.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20use%20voice%20commands%2C%20on%20my%20backpacks%20the%20mounting%20is%20very%20loose...so%20I%20want%20to%20be%20orientation%20is%20the%20right%20one.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ea%20simple%20test%20please%3A%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E-%20no%20recording%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E-%20landscape%20lock%20off%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E-%20rotate%20the%20camera%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eis%20the%20screen%20rotating%20as%20well%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ejust%20me%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Erobert%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-279979%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-279979%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3E...and%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eplease%20be%20aware%20that%20some%20video%20players%20do%20not%20play%20the%20video%20in%20the%20right%20orientation.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Esome%20of%20our%20forumers%26nbsp%3Breported%20Windows%20Media%20Player%20is%20playing%20a%20rotated%20video%20upside%20down!%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ehow%20does%20the%20recorded%20video%20look%20in%20the%20monitor%20screen%20in%20the%20camera%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eon%20PC%2C%20please%20try%20Quik%20or%20DivX%20players.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eor%20download%20on%20your%20mobile%20phone.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eare%20here%20alos%26nbsp%3Bupside%20down%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ejust%20me%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Erobert%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-280160%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-280160%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EGreat%20video%2C%20thank.%20As%20always%20these%20things%20seem%20to%20be%20more%20complicated.%20I'll%20try%20to%20clarify.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EAs%20far%20as%20I%20can%20tell%2C%20my%20hero7%20is%20behaving%20the%20same%20as%20yours.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EMy%20problem%20isn't%20with%20the%20camera%20or%20the%20orientation%20of%20the%20camera%20screen%20while%20I'm%20recording.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI'm%20talking%20about%20later%20when%20I%20download%20the%20video%20to%20the%20PC.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EYes%2C%20I'm%20aware%20that%20some%20player%20can%20detect%20orientation%20and%20play%20it%20right%20side%20up%2C%20but%20the%20video%20itself%20is%20still%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ESome%20video%20editor%20will%20do%20this%20too%20and%20some%20won't.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EQuik%20for%20example%20will%20show%20the%20video%20both%20right%20side%20up%20and%20upside%20down%20at%20the%20same%20time.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThis%20is%20where%20the%20problem%20start%2C%20it%20shows%20it%20to%20you%20right%20side%20up%2C%20but%20still%20saves%20it%20up%20side%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EBut%20since%20it's%20auto%20correcting%20during%20preview%2C%20you%20have%20no%20way%20of%20knowing%20if%20you%20need%20to%20flip%20it.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThis%20is%20where%20my%20second%20problem%20comes%20in.%20I%20don't%20want%20to%20spend%20hours%20trying%20to%20figure%20out%20if%20every%20clip%20needs%20to%20be%20flip%2C%20then%20flipping%20every%20single%20clip%2C%20then%20pasting%20everything%20together%2C%20only%20to%20save%20it%20and%20find%20there%20was%20one%20clip%20in%20the%20middle%20that%20was%20still%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EBottom%20line%2C%20having%20to%20post%20process%20this%20way%20sucks.%20I'd%20imagine%20lots%20of%20gopro%20owners%20are%20spending%20lots%20of%20time%20doing%20nothing%20other%20than%20flipping%20videos.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EOlder%20gopros%20had%20an%20upside%20down%20mode.%20In%20this%20mode%2C%20they%20would%20record%20a%20video%20that%20was%20right%20side%20up.%20The%20camera%20itself%20inverted%20the%20video.%20That%20way%20you%20never%20had%20to%20question%20the%20orientation%20or%20ever%20do%20any%20kind%20of%20post%20processing%20and%20every%20video%20played%20properly.%20I%20was%20hoping%20the%20hero%207%20had%20this%20mode%2C%20but%20I'm%20beginning%20to%20doubt%20it.%20It's%20a%20major%20oversight%20if%20it%20doesn't.%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-281235%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-281235%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3Ehi%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%2C%20and%20all%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eyou%20are%20right%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%2C%20and%20yes%2C%20mystery%20solved!%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ein%20short%20%3CSTRONG%3Ewhen%20upside%20down%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CSTRONG%3E-%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%20h7%20will%20save%20it%20upside%20down%20with%20Metadata%20Rotation%3A%20180.%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CSTRONG%3E-%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3E%20h6%20will%20save%20it%20normal%26nbsp%3Borientation%3C%2FFONT%3E%2C%20without%20Rotation%20Metadata%2C%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3Eas%20if%20it%20was%20filmed%20normally%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Ecould%26nbsp%3Bbe%20an%20issue%20or%20a%20feature!%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eto%20me%2C%20it%20is%20a%20feature.%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3Eif%20the%20player%2Fediting%20software%20is%20capable%20to%26nbsp%3Bread%20the%20metadata%20%22Rotation%3A%20180%22%20and%20correct%20the%20orientation%20automatically%2C%20we%20are%20good%20to%20go.%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3Eif%20not%2C%20we%20are%20in%20the%20situation%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%20described.....%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3EI'm%20sure%20every%20editing%20software%20have%20something%20related%20to%20the%20Metadata%20Rotation...can%20you%20check%3F%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20made%20a%20test%3A%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E-%20video%20normal%20and%20upside%20down%20with%20h6%20and%20h7%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E-%20all%20four%20are%20played%20with%20the%20right%20orientation%20by%3A%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E....%20Windows%20Media%20Player%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E....%20DivX%20player%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E....%20Movies%26amp%3BTV%20-%20the%20default%20Win10%20player%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E....%20iPhone%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E....%20edited%20iMovie%2C%20saved%2C%20etc....%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CSTRONG%3Ein%20metadata%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%2C%20can%20be%20seen%20opened%20in%20DivX...menu%20File%20%26gt%3B%20Show%20Video%20Information%20%26gt%3B%20Extended%20data....look%20below%20Video%20section%2C%20Display%20aspect%20ratio...you%20will%20find%20or%20not%26nbsp%3B%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3ERotation.%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ein%20one%20case%2C%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eh7%20filmed%20upside%20down%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%2C%20there%20is%20a%20field%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3ERotation%3A%20180%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3Enot%20present%20in%20h6%20filmed%20upside%20down%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%2C%20so%20indeed%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%26nbsp%3Bis%20right%2C%20the%20video%20filmed%20upside%20down%20in%20h6%2C%20is%20saved%20%22normal%22%20(as%20it%20was%20upside%20up%22.%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3Eh6%20-%20filmed%20normal%2C%20no%20Rotation%20Metadata%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CIMG%20src%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fvcsem46788.i.lithium.com%2Ft5%2Fimage%2Fserverpage%2Fimage-id%2F5488iDD8C534A60106147%2Fimage-size%2Foriginal%3Fv%3D1.0%26amp%3Bpx%3D-1%22%20border%3D%220%22%20alt%3D%22h6_non_rotated.JPG%22%20title%3D%22h6_non_rotated.JPG%22%20%2F%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eh6%20filmed%20upside%20down%2C%20no%20Rotation%20Metadata%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%3CIMG%20src%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fvcsem46788.i.lithium.com%2Ft5%2Fimage%2Fserverpage%2Fimage-id%2F5489i1EC5746F71D04639%2Fimage-size%2Foriginal%3Fv%3D1.0%26amp%3Bpx%3D-1%22%20border%3D%220%22%20alt%3D%22h6_rotated_no_rotation_metadata.JPG%22%20title%3D%22h6_rotated_no_rotation_metadata.JPG%22%20%2F%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eh7%20filmed%26nbsp%3Bnormal%2C%20no%20Rotation%20Metadata%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%3CIMG%20src%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fvcsem46788.i.lithium.com%2Ft5%2Fimage%2Fserverpage%2Fimage-id%2F5490i3DF357C4317D9670%2Fimage-size%2Foriginal%3Fv%3D1.0%26amp%3Bpx%3D-1%22%20border%3D%220%22%20alt%3D%22h7_non_rotated.JPG%22%20title%3D%22h7_non_rotated.JPG%22%20%2F%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eh7%20filmed%20upside%20down%2C%20Rotation%3A%20180%20Metadata%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%3CIMG%20src%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fvcsem46788.i.lithium.com%2Ft5%2Fimage%2Fserverpage%2Fimage-id%2F5491i948AB05934CE8534%2Fimage-size%2Foriginal%3Fv%3D1.0%26amp%3Bpx%3D-1%22%20border%3D%220%22%20alt%3D%22h7_rotated_yes_rotation_metadata.JPG%22%20title%3D%22h7_rotated_yes_rotation_metadata.JPG%22%20%2F%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-284217%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-284217%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EHI%2C%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F19446%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40robert1326%3C%2FA%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%20Thanks%20for%20doing%20some%20digging%20into%20this%20for%20me.%20Looks%20like%20you%20have%20confirmed%20what%20I%20suspected.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EUnfortunately%2C%20it%20takes%20often%20takes%20software%20a%20while%20to%20'catch%20up%20to%20new%20features'.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ECurrently%20my%20experience%20is%20that%20many%20don't%20handle%20this%20correctly.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ETo%20point%20out%20my%20specific%20problem.%20Say%20I've%20got%202%20clips%2C%20first%20is%20normal%2C%20second%20is%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20combine%20them%20into%20a%20single%20video.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ESome%20editors%20with%20right%20out%20rotation%200%20for%20the%20whole%20clip.%20So%20you%20get%20half%20right%20side%20up%20and%20the%20second%20part%20upside%20down.%20They%20drop%20metadata%20when%20combining%20clips.%20This%20is%20wrong.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ESome%20players%20do%20the%20same.%20Even%20if%20the%20Metadata%20is%20carried%20along%20with%20the%20clips.%20The%20player%20only%20reads%20the%20orientation%20once%20at%20the%20begining%20and%20assumes%20the%20entire%20clips%20is%20that%20orientation.%20Also%20wrong.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ETo%20work%20properly%2C%20the%20metadata%20has%20to%20be%20carried%20along%20to%20the%20final%20video%20and%20the%20player%20has%20to%20read%20the%20metadata%20as%20it%20plays.%20Many%20of%20the%20ones%20I've%20tried%2C%20just%20don't%20work%20correctly.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EIt%20would%20have%20been%20real%20nice%20if%20the%20H7%20also%20had%20an%20upside%20down%20mode%20that%20made%20it%20behave%20like%20the%20H6.%20That%20is%20what%20I%20am%20looking%20for.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI'm%20sure%20in%205%20years%20all%20the%20software%20will%20get%20updated%20and%20work%20fine.%20But%20until%20then%2C%20it's%20a%20huge%20pain%20to%20deal%20with.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EWith%20the%20earlier%20gopros%2C%20this%20was%20a%20none%20issue.%20I've%20already%20wasted%20a%20ton%20of%20time%20because%20of%20the%20with%20the%20H7.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EMaybe%20gopro%20will%20fix%20this%20in%20an%20software%20update%20for%20the%20H7.%20Hint%2C%20hint..%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CBLOCKQUOTE%3E%3CHR%20%2F%3E%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F19446%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40robert1326%3C%2FA%3E%26nbsp%3Bwrote%3A%3CBR%20%2F%3E%3CP%3Ehi%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%2C%20and%20all%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Eyou%20are%20right%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%2C%20and%20yes%2C%20mystery%20solved!%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3Ein%20short%20%3CSTRONG%3Ewhen%20upside%20down%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CSTRONG%3E-%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%20h7%20will%20save%20it%20upside%20down%20with%20Metadata%20Rotation%3A%20180.%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CSTRONG%3E-%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3E%20h6%20will%20save%20it%20normal%26nbsp%3Borientation%3C%2FFONT%3E%2C%20without%20Rotation%20Metadata%2C%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3Eas%20if%20it%20was%20filmed%20normally%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3EI'm%20sure%20every%20editing%20software%20have%20something%20related%20to%20the%20Metadata%20Rotation...can%20you%20check%3F%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CBR%20%2F%3E%3CP%3Ein%20one%20case%2C%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3Eh7%20filmed%20upside%20down%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%2C%20there%20is%20a%20field%20%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23800000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3ERotation%3A%20180%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23000000%22%3E%3CSTRONG%3E%3CFONT%20color%3D%22%23008000%22%3Enot%20present%20in%20h6%20filmed%20upside%20down%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FSTRONG%3E%2C%20so%20indeed%26nbsp%3B%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F83364%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40phil314%3C%2FA%3E%26nbsp%3Bis%20right%2C%20the%20video%20filmed%20upside%20down%20in%20h6%2C%20is%20saved%20%22normal%22%20(as%20it%20was%20upside%20up%22.%3C%2FFONT%3E%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FBLOCKQUOTE%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-313881%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-313881%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EAny%20update%20on%20this%3F%20I%20just%20bought%20the%20Hero%207%20Black%2C%20and%20I%20am%20going%20to%20use%20it%20to%20record%20flights%20in%20my%20plane.%20I%20was%20going%20to%20mount%20it%20upside%20down%20from%20the%20ceiling%20looking%20at%20the%20panel%20and%20out%20the%20front%20window.%20Is%20this%20going%20to%20be%20a%20problem%3F%20Will%20the%20video%20play%20upside%20down%3F%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EAlso%2C%20when%20I%20lock%20it%20into%20landscape%20mode%2C%20and%20I'm%20using%20it%20upside%20down%2C%20should%20I%20choose%20up%20or%20down%3F%20This%20whole%20subject%20is%20really%20confusing.%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-313984%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-313984%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EI've%20been%20hoping%20for%20an%20update%2C%20but%20haven't%20seen%20anything.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3ESo%20for%20now%20upside%20down%20recording%20is%20a%20nightmare.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20did%20a%20couple%20more%20test%20video%2C%20but%20it%20is%20a%20massive%20waste%20of%20time%20having%20to%20post%20process%20each%20clip%20just%20to%20flip%20it.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI%20spend%20more%20time%20flipping%20clips%20and%20trying%20to%20figure%20out%20which%20clips%20are%20flip%20and%20then%20having%20to%20redo%20the%20final%20video%20because%20I%20missed%20one.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EI've%20also%20wasted%20a%20lot%20of%20time%20trying%20to%20find%20a%20single%20peice%20of%20editing%20software%20that%20works%20correct%20every%20time.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThey%20all%20work%20differently%20and%20each%20have%20there%20own%20quirks.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EBottom%20line%20-%20It%20sucks%20massively.%20Upside%20down%20video%20is%20just%20not%20worth%20it.%20I%20consider%20it%20broken%20and%20never%20record%20upside%20down%20any%20more.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EIt%20would%20be%20SO%20easy%20for%20the%20gopro%20to%20handle%20this%20so%20we%20never%20have%20to.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThe%20older%20gopros%20worked%20perfect.%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343068%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343068%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3ETopic%20is%20a%20few%20days%20old%2C%20but%20my%20Video%20recorded%20with%20camera%20upside%20down%20is%20fine%2C%20put%20all%20the%20stills%20I%20take%20need%20flipped...%20I%20flip%20in%20lightroom%2C%20still%20upside%20down%20in%20RAW%2C%20have%20to%20flip%20there%20and%20save%2C%20than%20re-open%20in%20Photoshop%20(or%20anything%20else)%20to%20see%20up%20right%3F%3F%3F%26nbsp%3B%20Suggestions%3F%3F%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343422%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343422%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EHi%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F102657%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40elmoeod%3C%2FA%3E%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3EJust%20to%20clarify%2C%20was%20the%20video%20originally%20recorded%20as%20upside%20down%3F%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3EOr%20was%20it%20supposed%20to%20be%20up%20right%3F%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3EHave%20you%20tried%20using%20other%20editing%20applications%3F%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3EThanks!%3C%2FP%3E%0A%0A%3CP%3EEj%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343432%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343432%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EHi%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F102657%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40elmoeod%3C%2FA%3E%2C%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%20There%20are%20no%20good%20suggestions.%20You%20are%20doing%20exactly%20what%20you%20have%20to%20do.%20You%20and%20everyone%20else%20on%20the%20planet%20has%20to%20manual%20flip%20every%20pic%20and%20video%20you%20take%20in%20upside%20down%20mode.%20I%20currently%20have%20to%20flip%20every%20clip%20and%20then%20use%20my%20editor%20to%20asseble%20the%20clips%20afterward.%20Actual%20I've%20just%20stopped%20taking%20upside%20video%20all%20together%20because%20it's%20such%20a%20PIA.%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3E%26nbsp%3B%3C%2FP%3E%3CP%3EThis%20is%20because%20IMHO%2C%20upside%20down%20mode%20doesn't%20work%20right.%20There%20is%20no%20good%20reason%20the%20gopro%207%20shouldn't%20be%20able%20to%20flip%20it%20for%20you%2C%20but%20it%20doesn't.%20The%207%20works%20different%20from%20the%20gopro%206%20and%20earlier%20(which%20worked%20correctly).%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343440%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343440%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EThanks%20for%20Reply%2C%20Camera%20is%20mounted%20upside%20down%2C%20best%20way%20to%20mount%20in%20my%20SXS...%20My%20Videos%20are%20fine%2C%20just%20the%20stills%20are%20upside%20down.%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343441%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343441%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EThe%20Camera%20is%20mounted%20upside%20down%2C%20Video%20is%20fine%2C%20only%20stills%20are%20upside%20down...%20that%20is%20what%20is%20confusing....%20ty%20for%20your%20hlep%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343557%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343557%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3E%3CP%3EHello%20%3CA%20href%3D%22https%3A%2F%2Fcommunity.gopro.com%2Ft5%2Fuser%2Fviewprofilepage%2Fuser-id%2F102657%22%20target%3D%22_blank%22%3E%40elmoeod%3C%2FA%3E.%20Does%20it%20matter%20which%20Landscape%20Lock%20the%20camera%20is%20set%20to%3F%20When%20the%20camera%20is%20mounted%20upside%20down%2C%20the%20resulting%20still%20photo%20will%20be%20upside%20down%20as%20well%20if%20the%20Landscape%20Lock%20is%20set%20to%20Up.%20Let%20us%20know%20what%20you%20fin%20out.%20Thanks!%3C%2FP%3E%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E%3CLINGO-SUB%20id%3D%22lingo-sub-343714%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ERe%3A%20Hero%207%20Black%20recording%20upside%20down%3C%2FLINGO-SUB%3E%3CLINGO-BODY%20id%3D%22lingo-body-343714%22%20slang%3D%22en-US%22%3ELandscape%20lock%20is%20set%20to%20off%2C%20i%20am%20always%20taking%20camera%20out%20of%20frame%20to%20take%20still%20and%20videos%20handheld.%20Setting%20landscape%20to%20up%20and%20down%20seems%20to%20work%20fine...%20but%20off%20should%20do%20it%20automatically.%20TY%3C%2FLINGO-BODY%3E
Reply
Hiker
Posts: 7

Hero 7 Black recording upside down

I've been trying to get my Hero 7 black to record upside down.

The result is always an upside down video.

I've tried turning 'auto lock' on.

I've set 'landscape lock' to down.

But I still get an upside down video.

 

I had an older gopro model and I could swear it had a mode for upside down.

And the result was a video that was right side up when viewed.

 

Any ideas if the Hero 7 black can do this?

Nomad
Posts: 572

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

[ Edited ]

hi,

 

mine is working as it should.

 

and where do you get the upside down? in camera play? when play it on PC?

 

https://youtu.be/NN-TFJP9Jpo

 

keep in mind, when you start recording, the orientation camera set, feel, at that moment is kept during recording.

 

I use this upside down when dashboard in my car.

I let the landscape lock off, and screen orientation goes after the camera position.

 

when I mtb bike with my CamelbaK backpack, is mounted upside down, I always lock landscape lock down, just to be sure I have this orientation when the record starts. 

when I use the GoPro backpack, I use landscape lock up, for the same reason.

I use voice commands, on my backpacks the mounting is very loose...so I want to be orientation is the right one.

 

 

a simple test please:

- no recording

- landscape lock off

- rotate the camera

 

is the screen rotating as well?

 

just me,

robert

 

 

Uploaded by Robert Kirr on 2018-12-31.
Nomad
Posts: 572

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

...and @phil314

 

please be aware that some video players do not play the video in the right orientation.

some of our forumers reported Windows Media Player is playing a rotated video upside down!

 

how does the recorded video look in the monitor screen in the camera?

on PC, please try Quik or DivX players.

or download on your mobile phone.

are here alos upside down?

 

just me,

robert

 

 

 

Hiker
Posts: 7

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

[ Edited ]

Great video, thank. As always these things seem to be more complicated. I'll try to clarify.

As far as I can tell, my hero7 is behaving the same as yours.

 

My problem isn't with the camera or the orientation of the camera screen while I'm recording.

I'm talking about later when I download the video to the PC.

Yes, I'm aware that some player can detect orientation and play it right side up, but the video itself is still upside down.

Some video editor will do this too and some won't.

Quik for example will show the video both right side up and upside down at the same time.

 

This is where the problem start, it shows it to you right side up, but still saves it up side down.

But since it's auto correcting during preview, you have no way of knowing if you need to flip it.

 

This is where my second problem comes in. I don't want to spend hours trying to figure out if every clip needs to be flip, then flipping every single clip, then pasting everything together, only to save it and find there was one clip in the middle that was still upside down.

 

Bottom line, having to post process this way sucks. I'd imagine lots of gopro owners are spending lots of time doing nothing other than flipping videos.

 

Older gopros had an upside down mode. In this mode, they would record a video that was right side up. The camera itself inverted the video. That way you never had to question the orientation or ever do any kind of post processing and every video played properly. I was hoping the hero 7 had this mode, but I'm beginning to doubt it. It's a major oversight if it doesn't.

Nomad
Posts: 572

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

hi @phil314, and all,

 

you are right @phil314, and yes, mystery solved!

 

in short when upside down

- h7 will save it upside down with Metadata Rotation: 180.

- h6 will save it normal orientation, without Rotation Metadata, as if it was filmed normally

 

could be an issue or a feature!

to me, it is a feature.

 

 

if the player/editing software is capable to read the metadata "Rotation: 180" and correct the orientation automatically, we are good to go.

if not, we are in the situation @phil314 described.....

 

I'm sure every editing software have something related to the Metadata Rotation...can you check?

 

I made a test:

- video normal and upside down with h6 and h7

- all four are played with the right orientation by:

.... Windows Media Player

.... DivX player

.... Movies&TV - the default Win10 player 

.... iPhone

.... edited iMovie, saved, etc....

 

in metadata, can be seen opened in DivX...menu File > Show Video Information > Extended data....look below Video section, Display aspect ratio...you will find or not Rotation.

 

in one case, h7 filmed upside down, there is a field Rotation: 180

not present in h6 filmed upside down, so indeed @phil314 is right, the video filmed upside down in h6, is saved "normal" (as it was upside up".

 

h6 - filmed normal, no Rotation Metadata

 

h6_non_rotated.JPG

 

h6 filmed upside down, no Rotation Metadata

 

h6_rotated_no_rotation_metadata.JPG

 

h7 filmed normal, no Rotation Metadata

 

h7_non_rotated.JPG

 

 

h7 filmed upside down, Rotation: 180 Metadata

 

h7_rotated_yes_rotation_metadata.JPG

 

Hiker
Posts: 7

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

[ Edited ]

HI, @robert1326

  Thanks for doing some digging into this for me. Looks like you have confirmed what I suspected.

 

Unfortunately, it takes often takes software a while to 'catch up to new features'.

Currently my experience is that many don't handle this correctly.

 

To point out my specific problem. Say I've got 2 clips, first is normal, second is upside down.

I combine them into a single video.

 

Some editors with right out rotation 0 for the whole clip. So you get half right side up and the second part upside down. They drop metadata when combining clips. This is wrong.

Some players do the same. Even if the Metadata is carried along with the clips. The player only reads the orientation once at the begining and assumes the entire clips is that orientation. Also wrong.

 

To work properly, the metadata has to be carried along to the final video and the player has to read the metadata as it plays. Many of the ones I've tried, just don't work correctly.

 

It would have been real nice if the H7 also had an upside down mode that made it behave like the H6. That is what I am looking for.

I'm sure in 5 years all the software will get updated and work fine. But until then, it's a huge pain to deal with.

 

With the earlier gopros, this was a none issue. I've already wasted a ton of time because of the with the H7.

Maybe gopro will fix this in an software update for the H7. Hint, hint..

 

 

 


@robert1326 wrote:

hi @phil314, and all,

 

you are right @phil314, and yes, mystery solved!

 

in short when upside down

- h7 will save it upside down with Metadata Rotation: 180.

- h6 will save it normal orientation, without Rotation Metadata, as if it was filmed normally

 

 

I'm sure every editing software have something related to the Metadata Rotation...can you check?

 


in one case, h7 filmed upside down, there is a field Rotation: 180

not present in h6 filmed upside down, so indeed @phil314 is right, the video filmed upside down in h6, is saved "normal" (as it was upside up".

 

Tourist
Posts: 7

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

Any update on this? I just bought the Hero 7 Black, and I am going to use it to record flights in my plane. I was going to mount it upside down from the ceiling looking at the panel and out the front window. Is this going to be a problem? Will the video play upside down? 

 

Also, when I lock it into landscape mode, and I'm using it upside down, should I choose up or down? This whole subject is really confusing. 

Hiker
Posts: 7

Re: Hero 7 Black recording upside down

I've been hoping for an update, but haven't seen anything.

 

So for now upside down recording is a nightmare.

I did a couple more test video, but it is a massive waste of time having to post process each clip just to flip it.

I spend more time flipping clips and trying to figure out which clips are flip and then having to redo the final video because I missed one.

I've also wasted a lot of time trying to find a single peice of editing software that works correct every time.

They all work differently and each have there own quirks.

 

Bottom line - It sucks massively. Upside down video is just not worth it. I consider it broken and never record upside down any more.

It would be SO easy for the gopro to handle this so we never have to.

The older gopros worked perfect.