06-19-2019 09:50 AM
I need help to determine what settings to use on my GoPro Hero 7 Black, I also have a drone which is 4k and linear obviously.. So I’m wondering if it would be best to use 4k wide or 2.7k linear.. Would it be weird to record between linear and wide?? Which is your preferred one and which frame rate do you use?
I heard for standard use 24 fps is best, and above that is for specific slowmotion recordings..
Looking forward to hear what you guys think.
(I'll be using these recordings for travel videoes primarily. This includes hiking, snorkeling, diving and so on.)
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06-20-2019 06:59 PM
I found this write up response I did answering another members post. Just for FYI
As far as when to use filters:
Polarizer: Can be used just about anytime with bright daylight. Used to keep glare/reflection to a minimum. Best on/over water.
ND filters: Used to slow the shutter on the camera. For photos this is widely used to soften running water. Helps to create a motion blur in the photo. Also good in video when you want to increase the feeling of speed by inducing more motion blur. Allow you to set your shutter manually without blowing out the picture with too much light.
UV Filter: A pretty pointless filter for the Hero6/5 cameras. Mainly used by photographers to protect their lens from scratches and the sensor from direct sunlight. Since the Hero6/5 already have a protective lens, a UV serves no purpose. The wide angle of the camera lens protects the sensor from damage from direct sunlight. Use this as a backup in case you scratch your protective lens (the one that comes with the camera).
Using a ND filter during times like sunset can help you to get a lot of detail in the sky if you use them correctly. If you are going to be editing your videos/photos with a decent editor like Adobe Premiere or DaVinci Resolve, you really don't need the filters. Lowering the ev on the camera will prevent blow outs from the sun and increase detail in highlights. Using the Flat color profile gives you more detail in shadow.
If you are color grading your videos in post editing and aren't trying to induce motion blur in your photos/videos, save yourself some money and just get the Polarizer from QKOO and select the best Protune settings when filming. You probably do not need ND filters.
06-19-2019 01:40 PM
from what I am gathering on scuba diving settings for my trip to the maldives this is what I found out: Its a lot of stuff but I will have a summary at the bottom.
4K at 60 fps with an aspect ratio of 16:9 and hypersmooth image stabilization. The 4:3 aspect ration does not
You can use 30FPS if it's dark.
But if it's sunny and the water is clear you can use 60FPS.
So yes, your going to want protune enabled.
ISO limit I would say would be 400-800 if the waters bright.
If it's going to be dark with a lighgt, I would say 1600 ISO MAX.
After that for nice videos 30fps will do, but for slow-motion
60fps will be the winner.
Video lights definitely and 2.7/1440/1080 @25/30 fps
Underwater Video Settings
1080p (referred to as Full HD), is the digital standard and the perfect resolution for sharing your videos on social media, YouTube, and other platforms. Most video editing software can also play this back while editing with no issues (versus jumpy, frustrating playback that hinders your ability to see what you’re doing while editing).
1440 – 2.7K – 4K. Why not shoot these? First, video at this resolution will most likely be scaled down to 1080 or 720p when uploaded to share with your friends. Second, depending on your mobile phone, you might run into compatibility issues trying to play back the footage (your phone must support HEVC). Third, these higher resolutions make editing very difficult unless you’re computer is super duper suped up. When I shoot 4K, I convert all footage into 1080p proxy files just so I can see and edit them. This is complicated and takes time.
Note: Of course there are many benefits to the higher resolutions, but stick with 1080p unless you’re a savvy editor.
Frames Per Second: 60
I recommend 60fps if you’re not interested in editing your footage; if you prefer to simply post the clips from your dive online for friends. 60fps is easy to work with and also allows you to slow down the footage by 50% for slow motion if desired.
I recommend shooting up to 240fps (at 1080p) for anyone who understands and doesn’t mind editing. The reason is that you can still render video at 30 or 60fps, but with the ability to slow down that 240fps footage for amazing slow motion. You might as well shoot this high frame rate so that you’re ready for any fast action that might create a great slow motion clips (e.g. a sea lion jumping out of the water).
So thats a lot of stuff i found from various fourms youtube videos etc.
Wide View no matter what for diving
Hyper Smooth Stabilization alwayys in what ever setting you choose.
main thing I found was if its sunny out shoot in 60 FPS Wide View
not as sunny bump that down to 30 FPS in what ever mode 4k or 1080P you are shooting
I plan to shoot in 4k during the day.... as stated just above everything renders to 1080p or 720
Always have hypersmooth stabilization On always
Turn on ProTune
Get a RED FILTER for diving if you are going deeper then 30 ft get a red filter. The GoPro Brand is very limited right now but Polor pro is a good option from all the youtube videos I watched. I got both right now due to the fact the GoPro one was out of stock at the time I wanted it.
NIght Diving I plan to use 1080P at 30 fps I will be having my Dive lights as my only source of light
Going to use Protune on
may limit ISO to 800 max not sure yet
Photo Settings: Time Lapse Photo (2-second Interval), Wide FOV
Hopefully this helps you and we get somemore feed back on this. I was just ready to make a post on this topic. I am diving in the Maldives in a month. Go pro Hero 7 black supersuit and Gopro red filter. I will be doing some nights dives also. Night diving is just going to be winging it with the settings above and adjusting after the dive.
06-19-2019 02:02 PM
Thank you so much for the answer. Extremely detailed and helpful.
What do you think about what this fella has to say in the below video?
Go to 7:00 and hear his opinion regarding frame rates..
06-19-2019 02:25 PM
grandpeak32425 I get what he is saying that you do not want to mix different frame rates in your editing but I would rather have the option to go superslow with the 60 fps anytime in my video editing. I am going to be using the GoPro software to do this not windows movie maker like i did before. I am going to have a lot of whale sharks, Manta Rays etc in the Maldives hopefully right over me. They have come to 5 feet away from us divers before and I want that in 60 fps. I plan to capture it all at 60 fps during the day and 30 fps at Night.. NIght is lower due to the light levels.. This is the first camera I actually am messing with the settings My gopro hero 5 I did not change anything cause I did not know. I will just use my basic video editing experience to make it work. I know there is a way to change the settings on your go pro under water with the supersuit. I am just going to set it and before the dive and go with that for the duration of that dive. Hope that helps you a bit.
06-19-2019 10:51 PM
It sure helps a lot. Thank you! I'll be using Premiere Pro for post production, but 30 fps or 60 fps sounds like a good start to film in. And just to clarify you would always use wide perspective while snorkeling/diving right? Would you use the same one above water?
06-20-2019 12:01 AM
Whatever you use, mixing fps is also not a problem. In Adobe Premiere, just set your timeline sequence to the slowest fps clip and the lowest clip resolution. So, if you are mixing 4K/24fps and 1080p/60fps, then you want a sequence of 1080p/24fps. The 4K footage you will either scale down or use the extra area to be able to better frame your subject. The editor will automatically drop frames from the 60fps footage to match the 24fps, but if you apply slow motion, it will be able to keep those frames. (BTW - double check your footage as it's usually not 24fps but really 23.98, 30fps is 29.97 and 60fps is 59.90.
06-20-2019 01:01 AM
Man that's a great comment really.. Straight to the business. One of the first SPECIFIC and HONEST answers I received. Thank you! But would you then recommend that I shoot 4k/30 fps or 2.7k/60fps on my drone and gopro as standard so I always can add some slow mo for flexibility and a Premiere Pro sequence of 4k/24 fps?
06-20-2019 02:48 AM
This is going to be in three segments. The first two will be me babbling and ranting about settings and detailing my thoughts on each one and how they work. The third will just be a summary answering your question (feel free to just skip to this).
How do you plan to display the videos? If it's for YouTube, then you want to consider the bitrates that YouTube allows. What ruins most people's videos is when they upload to YouTube only have their videos re-rendered and compressed by YouTube to meet their requirements.
Bitrates is what you want to focus on. This is how much data information each pixel in the video will have. If your video has too high of a bitrate, YouTube will reprocess the video and compress it down. Usually this is where you end up with a lot of pixelation and frustration that the video on YouTube looks much worse than the same video on your computer.
With all of this in mind, here are the bitrate recommendations from YouTube (NOTE, these are the actual YouTube bitrate numbers, not some made up number or suggestion from a 3rd party):
SDR uploads (Standard Definition...pretty much everything is HDR these days, but if you only want SDR, here are the numbers)
4K Video at 24, 25, or 30 fps use 35-45Mbps
4K Video at 48, 50, or 60 fps use 53-68Mbps
2K Video at 24, 25, 30 fps use 16Mbps
2K Video at 48, 50, or 60 fps use 24Mbps
1080p Video at 24, 25, 30 fps use 8Mbps
1080p Video at 48, 50, 60 fps use 12Mbps
As you can see, using higher frame rates allows for higher Mbps. With HDR video (which is what you should do if you want your videos to look great) it's Much higher.
4K Video at 24, 25, 30 fps use 44-56 Mbps
4K Video at 48, 50, 60 fps use 66-85 Mbps
2K Video at 24, 25, 30 fps use 20 Mbps
2K Video at 48, 50, 60 fps use 30 Mbps
1080p Video at 24, 25, 30 fps use 10 Mbps
1080p Video at 48, 50, 60 fps use 15 Mbps
I'm going to get back to these numbers later when I talk about sequence settings and export settings, but the thing to take note of is the higher bitrate allowed with higher fps.
Now, to answer the question of what to record in. This really comes down to a few things. First, when choosing resolution you always want the highest you can get, but also within the restraints of how much storage space you have and the processing capability of your computer. If you don't have a lot of storage, don't use 4K as it's going to hog up a lot of space. Luckily, GoPro uses HEVC, unlike many other drones and cameras, so 4K on a GoPro uses almost half the storage as 4K on another device. However, this leads to another issue. While HEVC is a much more efficient format, it's also more complex and crams more info into a lower bitrate. Although a GoPro may record 4K video at 78 Mb/s, since this is in HEVC it's really closer to 120 Mb/s h.264. That's a tremendous amount of data for your editor to unpack and manipulate. unless you have a powerful machine, this can make editing a chore. However, Proxies can make this much easier. @sdpete501 There is a trick to doing it with GoPro lvr files that makes the process much easier, but this isn't available with all resolutions and frame rates. To learn more, watch this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6toSwPewo8&list=PLRUaINCj5fCg2mPsHdEQ8az1R5we9cbn8
If your system lags with 4K when editing, or if you don't want to deal with the hassle of proxy files, then your best bet is to just record in 2.7K. 99% of all of my recordings are in 2.7K when I am producing a video for someone else. For my own personal family videos where I'm just preserving memories, I usually just use 1080p. 1080p is fast, looks great, and works well with any editor. I use 4K in very specific situations, but to get into that, I will now get into frame rates and sequence settings.
I've already touched on frame rates in my previous post, but I want to just expand a little on the relationship between frame rates and shutter speed. Shutter speed determines how crisp and clean each frame will be. It also determines what your ISO limits will be. In brief, ISO determines how "clean" the image will be. Fast frame rates = crips while slow frame rates = soft. Low ISO = clean while High ISO = noisy. With action cameras (and in general with drones) you want Crisp and Clean.
The lower the ISO, the cleaner it will look. The higher the ISO, the more noise/grain will be introduced. On a digital camera, the ISO basically just effects how charged or excited each pixel on the sensor will become. You will hear about ISO "sensitivity" (especially from your "Cinematic" YouTubers) but that is really in relation to FILM. The digital sensor is no more "sensitive"at ISO 6400 than it is at ISO 100. What it does do on the other hand, is is provide more charge or excitability to each pixel in response to light at higher ISO. And, like a bunch of children, the more excited they get, the more noise is generated.
A fast shutter results in a shorter exposure time on the sensor. This means you need ample light to hit the sensor during the exposure time. If the shutter is too fast, the image will be too dark and you will have to increase the ISO to compensate. However, if the shutter is too slow (open longer), any motion will be written to the sensor for that frame creating blurry and soft frames. Also, a slow (long) shutter can cause too much light to hit the sensor causing it to blow out and over expose. The sweet spot is having a fast enough shutter that allows for the lowest ISO possible.
When it comes to EIS (Hypersmooth stabilization), you need a fast shutter for it to work best. In general, the shutter needs to be at least 3X the fps. Now, there are plenty of BS YouTube "pro" videographers that will try to sell the "Cinematic" 180-degree rule stating that shutter speed should be set to double your frame rate. IGNORE THIS! YOU DO NOT WANT A SHUTTER 2X the FRAME RATE on your ACTION CAMERA or DRONE! You don't need ND filters and you don't need to ruin your footage trying to be more "cinematic". Especially if you are going to be doing any slow motion, you want each frame to be crisp and without excessive blur. If you are not going to do slow motion AND don't need stabilization, 2x frame rate is fine. However, if you are planning on doing slow motion and/or need stabilization, then 3x is the MINIMUM. Faster is better, but 3X is the slowest you want to go.
With that in mind, the following are the MINIMUM shutter speeds
24fps = 1/96
30fps = 1/120fps
60fps = 1/240fps <-- Best for Hypersmooth EIS
Drone footage looks best with high fame rates because of the fast motion. When you use lower frame rates it can cause the ground to look like a blury mess. If you are doing slow panning shots or just scenic shots, however, then 30 fps looks better as you wont get as much jitter. The advantage of recording scenic shots in 4K is simply because you get more of the image since the entire sensor is being used. So, to answer the question of what resolution/frame rate to use with your drone...well, it depends.
The other issue comes down to available light. As I mentioned above, you want the lowest ISO. If the camera is set to something like 24fps, then that means each second is broken down into 24 segments. The camera can expose the sensor for up to 1/24th of a second for each segment (1/24 shutter). This is a lot more time for exposure than if you are recording in 60fps which maxes the exposure time at 1/60th of a second. So, for low light you will get much better results with a lower fps than with a higher fps since this will also allow for a lower ISO. On the GoPro camera there is a setting called Auto Low Light. Turn this off. The only function of Auto Low Light is to automatically lower the frames per second to 30fps. This setting is really just for people who don't understand the relationship between fps, shutter speed, and low light (which also kills me when I watch "professional" reviewers do low light test with GoPro cameras and state that they are in 60fps Auto Low Light...Ummm, no you aren't. You are in 30fps because the Auto Low Light kicked in, or you are at 60fps because it didn't).